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Hell Creek Formation Life List #3 (of 5)

                   HELL CREEK FORMATION
      Cretaceous "Hell Creek Faunal Facies"; Late Maastrichtian
     Compiled by, and comments by Phillip Bigelow (1997)
                       Version 1.0.0

Linnaean name                            Vernacular name+comments

Lissodus selachos (Estes) 1964                 Hybodontid shark

Squatirhina americana Estes 1964               Orectolobid shark

Brachaelurus estesi (Herman) 1975          Orectolobid shark (rare)

Ischyrhiza avonicola Estes 1964            sawfish (extremely rare)

Myledaphus bipartitus Cope 1876            ray  (relatively common)
"Acipenser" eruciferus (Cope) 1876              sturgeon

"Acipenser" albertensis Lambe 1902              sturgeon

Protoscaphirhynchus squamosus Wilmovsky 1956    sturgeon
Paleopsephurus wilsoni MacAlpin 1947        Paddlefish (Polydontid)
                                       (see Grande and Bemis, 1991)

Large, undescribed Polyodontidae            Paddlefish (Polydontid)
                                       (see Grande and Bemis, 1991)

Melvius thomasi Bryant 1987                     a large amiid fish

Kindleia fragosa Jordan 1927               small amiid (ubiquitous)

Lepisosteus occidentalis (Leidy) 1856    garfish (extremely common)

Belonostomus longirostris (Lambe) 1902  A long-snouted slender fish
                                (affinity= ?Aspidorhynchidae). Rare

Belonostomus sp.                                 see above

**Coriops amnicolus Estes 1969                      fish
                                            MAY BE PALEOCENE IN AGE

Phyllodus paulkatoi Estes and Hiatt 1978   fish with columnar teeth

Palaeolabrus montanensis Estes 1969           fish (incertae sedis)

Platacodon nanus Marsh 1889                  small teleost fish

Pachyrhizodontoidei indet.                           fish
Albanerpeton nexuosus Estes 1981                   salamander

Opisthotriton kayi Auffenberg 1961                 salamander

Prodesmodon copei Estes 1964      salamander (extremely rare)

**Proamphiuma cretacea Estes 1969        eel-like salamander.
                                      MAY BE PALEOCENE IN AGE

Scapherpeton tectum Cope 1876   salamander (most common sal.)

Lisserpeton bairdi Estes 1965                   salamander

cf. Piceoerpeton sp.                            salamander

Habrosaurus dilatus Gilmore 1928   LARGE salamander (160 cm long)
Scotiophryne pustulosa Estes 1969               small frog
Plesiobaena antiqua Lambe 1902               Baenid turtle

Eubaena cephalica (Hay) 1904                 Baenid turtle

Stygiochelys estesi Gaffney and Hiatt 1971   Baenid turtle

Palatobaena bairdi Gaffney 1972              Baenid turtle

Neurankylus eximius Lambe 1902    Largest baenid in Hell Cr.

Thescelus insiliens Hay 1908                 Baenid turtle

Emarginochelys cretacea Whetstone 1978   Chelydrid-like turtle

Chelydridae indet.                     Chelydrid-like turtle

"Clemmys" backmani Russell 1934      Thin-shelled macrobaenid

Adocus sp.                            Flattened dermatemydid

Basilems sinuosa Riggs 1906              BIG dermatemydid
                               land tortoise! 1+ meters long

Dermatemydine indet.                   Dermatemydid turtle

Kinosternidae?                    Small kinosternid turtle

Trionyx (Trionyx)             Similar to living trionychid

Trionyx (Aspideretes)             Large trionychid turtle

"Plastomenus" A                         Trionychid turtle

"Plastomenus" C                         Trionychid turtle

Helopanoplia distincta Hay 1908         Trionychid turtle

Compsemys victa Leidy 1856               ?Baenid? turtle
Champsosaurus sp. indet.    Long-snouted aquatic archosaur
Haptosphenus placodon Estes 1964             Teiid lizard

Leptochamops denticulatus (Gilmore) 1928    Small teiid lizard

Peneteius aquilonius Estes 1969               Teiid lizard

Chamops segnis Marsh 1892             Largest teiid lizard in
                                        Hell Creek Formation

Contogenys sloani Estes 1969               ?Scincid? lizard

Exostinus lancensis Cope 1873             Xenosaurid lizard

Odaxosaurus piger Gilmore 1928                Anguid lizard

Proxestops jepseni (Gilmore) 1942             Anguid lizard

**Colpodontosaurus crascens Estes 1964   Necrosaurid lizard
                                         MAY BE PALEOCENE!!

Parasaniwa wyomingensis Gilmore 1928     Necrosaurid lizard

Paraderma bogerti Estes 1964          ?Helodermatid? lizard

Palaeosaniwa canadensis Gilmore 1928   LARGE varanid lizard.
                                 Largest in the Hell Cr. Fm.
                                 We're talking MONITOR lizard-

Boidae indet.                    Snake. Earliest-known boid.
                                   See Bryant (1989:49, 76)
Leidyosuchus sternbergi Gilmore 1910            Crocodylid

Brachychampsa montana Gilmore 1911           Alligatorinae

"Undescribed alligatorine A"                 Alligatorinae

"Undescribed alligatorine B"                 Alligatorinae

**Thoracosaurus neocesariensis        Marine crocodilian(1)
Comments from pkb:
** = Stratigraphic and/or age context unclear. Included for
      historical context. It is best to exclude the taxon
      from the "Hell Creek Faunal Facies".

(1) = Extant marine crocs are sometimes found in rivers.
      I am not sure whether this occurrence is from the
      non-marine Hell Creek Formation proper, or whether it
      is from marine-equivalent rocks.  I seek more

All "Bug Creek Faunal Facies" taxa excluded, due to almost
certain mixing of Cretaceous and Paleocene taxa.

Information from:

Bryant, L.J. 1989. Non-dinosaurian lower vertebrates across
        the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in Northeastern
        Montana. University of California Publications in
        Geological Sciences volume 134. University of
        California Press, 107 pages.

Grande, L. and W. E. Bemis. 1991. Osteology and phylogenetic
       relationships of fossil and Recent paddlefishes
       (Polydontidae) with comments on the interrelationships
       of Acipenseriformes. Journal of Vertebrate
       Paleontology, vol. 11, suppliment to number 1,
       121 pages.

Hutchison, J. H., and J. D. Archibald. 1986. Diversity of
       turtles across the Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary in
       Northeastern Montana. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,
       Palaeoecology 55:1-22.

                 End of Part 3