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Re: Internal Testes (in afrotherians)

Afrotheria is a clade name, but since the clade is largely endemic to Africa, one could call it a geographic term as well. However, it is not just a geographic term.
As for Paenungulata and Uranotheria, I believe they are synonymous or nearly so. Malcolm McKenna coined the term Uranotheria, and since he is a strict cladist, perhaps one is node-based and the other is stem-based. It frankly just wasn't important enough to me to make an impression I guess. Since ungulates may be a polyphyletic taxon, the term paenungulata may not be very appropriate anyway. The true hooves of artiodactyls, perissodactyls, and South American ungulate groups, are probably unrelated to the nail-hooves of uranotherians (pseudungulates), except that both are derived (probably independently) from plesiomophic mammal nails. McKenna apparently had other reasons, since he still recognized Ungulata as a clade in his 1997 book.
------Ken Kinman
From: Raymond Ancog <rayancog@pacific.net.ph>
Reply-To: rayancog@pacific.net.ph
To: dinosaur@usc.edu, vrtpaleo@usc.edu
Subject: Re: Internal Testes (in afrotherians)
Date: Tue, 29 Aug 2000 05:50:22 +0900

On the dinosaur mailing list,

T. Mike Keesey wrote:

>On Mon, 28 Aug 2000, Ken Kinman wrote:
>> Jaime,
>> Just to clarify. Elephants, sirenians, hyraxes, and desmostylians
>> are only a subclade of afrotherians (called Uranotheria).
>This is getting a bit OT, but ... isn't this taxon called Penungulata or
>Paenungulata (Hyracoidea and Tethytheria)?

Yep, it's spelled Paenungaluta in Grzimek's Animal Encyclopaedia, which is
where I first read about it. In that book, though, the North Pacific
desmostylians were excluded and the African embrithopods (Arsinoitherium)
were tentatively added.

(Speaking of Grzimek, does anyone read it and what is the lastest edition?)

Ken Kinman wrote:

>       Just to clarify.  Elephants, sirenians, hyraxes, and desmostylians
>are only a subclade of afrotherians (called Uranotheria).  Are internal
>testes also found in other afrotherians (tubulidentates, macroscelidids,
>tenrecs, golden mole, etc.)?

Ken, you're using "Afrotherian" as a geographical term, I presume.

Raymond Thaddeus C. Ancog
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
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