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RE: Internal Testes (in afrotherians)

> From: owner-dinosaur@usc.edu [mailto:owner-dinosaur@usc.edu]On Behalf Of
> Ken Kinman
> Raymond,
>      Afrotheria is a clade name, but since the clade is largely
> endemic to
> Africa, one could call it a geographic term as well.  However, it is not
> just a geographic term.

Specifically, it is the clade comprised of Afrosoricida (golden moles,
tenrecs, and allies), Macroscelidea (elephant shrews), Tubulidentata
(aardvarks), Hyracoidea (hyraxes), Sirenia (manatees & dugongs), and
Proboscidea (tuskers).  If memory serves, Springer & colleagues did not
provide a Phylogenetic Taxonomy-type definition for the clade.  This clade
is supported in some molecular phylogenies, although no morphological study
has yet supported it.

Waddell et al. (1999. Sys. Biol. 1-5) published the introduction to a
special issue of Systematic Biology on mammalian phylogenies, where they
synthesized several different studies and proposed new taxon names.  Among
them are Pseudungulata (Paenungulata + Tubulidentata), Atlantogenata
(afrotheres plus xenarthrans: like the idea, but not terribly
well-supported), Laurasiatheria (Eulipotyphyla (most of the traditional
"Insectivora"), Chiroptera, Cetartiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Carnivora, and
Pholidota), Zooamata (Perisso., Carnivora & pangolins), Fereuungulata
(zooamates and cetartiodactyls), Scrotifera (fereuungulates plust bats), and
Whippomorpha (hippos plus whales).

Nearly all these combinations are supported only by some molecular studies.

                Thomas R. Holtz, Jr.
                Vertebrate Paleontologist
Department of Geology           Director, Earth, Life & Time Program
University of Maryland          College Park Scholars
                College Park, MD  20742
Phone:  301-405-4084    Email:  tholtz@geol.umd.edu
Fax (Geol):  301-314-9661       Fax (CPS-ELT): 301-405-0796